By Gereon Müller
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Additional resources for A-bar Syntax: A Study in Movement Types
Abstract Incorporation (S-structure): ... Y¿ [ ... X¿ ... ] ... b. Overt Incorporation (S-structure): ... [γ^ Y¿ X j ] ... t j ... c. Empty Identification (S-structure): ... [γ - ] ... X ... If none of the options in (18) is available, two heads will count as distinct. Given that head movement (at S-structure and at LF) leaves traces, the problem arises of how a trace of head movement can be properly governed so as to fulfill the ECP. Baker (1988) convincingly argues that X°-traces cannot fulfill the ECP via θ-government.
Since subject traces are also not θ-governed, t¿ in (8-a) receives the feature [-7] at Sstructure. Given that 7-marking may never apply to a 7-marked trace, (8-a) violates the ECP (7) at LF. Similarly, the initial adjunct trace t¿ in (8-b) is not properly governed at S-structure. But adjunct traces, by assumption, are 7-marked only at LF. On the way to LF, however, the complementizer that, being semantically empty, is deleted, so that antecedent-government of t¿ by the intermediate trace t· can apply.
Thus, consider again the English examples in (2), repeated here in (39). (39) a. Whatj don't you know [cp howj PRO to fix t¿ t j ] ? b. *Howj don't you know [cp what¿ PRO to fix t¿ t j ] ? In (39-a), a direct object what has undergone long-distance movement in one swoop from a non-finite iu/i-island (SpecC being already filled by how). Since the object trace t¿ is θ-governed, an ECP violation does not arise in (39-a). However, CP is a barrier between what and t¿, and this barrier induces a Subjacency effect (t¿ is not subjacent to what), which is responsible for the intermediate status of (39-a).
A-bar Syntax: A Study in Movement Types by Gereon Müller