By Mark Harvey
This grammar offers an total description of Gaagudju, a now approximately extinct language of northern Australia. Gaagudju differs from such a lot formerly defined Australian languages in a few methods. It exhibits marked changes within the realizations of under pressure and unstressed syllables. It has complicated structures of prefixation in addition to suffixation. there's a transparent contrast among efficient and unproductive morphology, with a large number of the morphology being unproductive. whereas notice order is mostly unfastened, strictly ordered phrasal compounding constructions are very important.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Gaagudju
In slow, monitored speech, forms with the velar nasal were given. However, in faster speech, the velar nasal is usually absent. As with the lenitions of the velar stop, lenition of the velar nasal shows lexical conditioning. The lenition is particularly frequently attested in the following morphemes, or morpheme combinations. (2-63) ngaDJ- '1st possessive', nga-na- Ί<2-', ngameena 'what', ngameneega 'why', gardanganjngara 'to swim', nji-nga-n'II/2<3M-IRR-', ma-nga-n'IIK3M-IRR-', gu-nga-n'IV<3M-IRR' As these examples illustrate the lenition is usually restricted to the following phonological environment.
A more motivated explanation for the difference between (2-107) and (2-108) is that among the potential realisations of /awu/, [au$u] is preferred to [äwu], whereas [awu] is preferred to [au$u]. In other words, diphthongisation is 48 Chapter 2 only found when there is a follwing tense realisation (there are no examples of /awo#/). In other environments, the realisation of /w/ depends upon fluency register distinctions and whether both or only one of the neighbouring vowels is a back vowel. In the least fluent register, it appears that the labial continuant is realised as [w].
Nelson Mulurrinj - 95cs of largely voiceless closure. Little Dolly Yarnmalu - an approximant of 90cs duration. Approximant realisations are characteristic of lenis stops, and are never found with fortis stops. Stops in Gaagudju therefore show a range of realisations extending across the spectrum which serves to distinguish lenis stops from fortis stops in many of the neighbouring languages. It seems likely that there was considerable dialectal and idiolectal variation in the exact realisation patterns shown by stops.
A Grammar of Gaagudju by Mark Harvey