Download e-book for iPad: A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts by Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)

By Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3034876033

ISBN-13: 9783034876032

ISBN-10: 3764368187

ISBN-13: 9783764368180

Methods, simply as ailments or scientists, have their very own historical past. it will be important for scientists to pay attention to the genesis of the tools they use and of the context during which they have been developed.

A historical past of Epidemiologic tools and Concepts relies on a suite of contributions which seemed in "SPM foreign magazine of Public Health", beginning in January 2001. The contributions specialize in the ancient emergence of present epidemiological tools and their relative value at assorted deadlines, instead of on particular achievements of epidemiology in controlling plagues corresponding to cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, or lung melanoma. The papers current the layout of potential and retrospective stories, and the options of bias, confounding, and interplay. The compilation of articles is complemented by means of an advent and reviews via Prof. Alfredo Morabia which places them within the context of present epidemiological research.

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589). This formulation of the notion of risk is tautological. If you accept the definition of the sufficient cause, then of course the risk is the probability that sufficient causes are formed. (... " (Rothman, 1976 p. 590). Thus, the strength of a risk factor depends on the prevalence of the complementary risk factors needed to create a sufficient cause. This result has truly insightful implications with respect to population thinking: "The characterization of risk factors as "strong" or "weak" has no universal basis (...

55). by Population Death in 1851 cholera in Deaths in 10,000 livings 14 weeks end Oct 14 [1854] Southwark and Vauxhall Company Lambeth Company London 266,516 173,748 2,362,236 4,093 461 10,367 153 26 43 quantify the impact of the epidemics on, respectively, the clients of two water supply companies, the Southwark and Vauxhall Company, and the Lambeth Company, and the rest of London. The numerators are the numbers of deaths observed in each of the three groups. The denominators are the numbers of households supplied by water companies.

Neglecting the period of exposure to risk can also lead to invalid interpretation of a study result. The British epidemiologist Austin Bradford Hill (1897-1991) described the potential fallacy resulting from neglect of the period of exposure to risk in his textbook "Introduction to medical statistics" (Hill, 19 3 9). As it is difficult to write more clearly than Hill, I will quote him here extensively. "Suppose on January 1st 1936 there are 5,000 persons under observation, none of whom are inoculated; that 300 are inoculated on April 1st, a further 600 on July 1st, and another 100 on October 1st.

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A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts by Alfredo Morabia (auth.), Alfredo Morabia (eds.)

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