By Paul E. Ceruzzi
This enticing historical past covers smooth computing from the advance of the 1st digital electronic desktop throughout the dot-com crash. the writer concentrates on 5 key moments of transition: the transformation of the pc within the overdue Forties from a really good medical tool to a advertisement product; the emergence of small structures within the past due Sixties; the start of private computing within the Nineteen Seventies; the unfold of networking after 1985; and, in a bankruptcy written for this variation, the interval 1995-2001. the hot fabric specializes in the Microsoft antitrust swimsuit, the increase and fall of the dot-coms, and the arrival of open resource software program, rather Linux. in the chronological narrative, the publication strains numerous overlapping threads: the evolution of the computer's inner layout; the influence of monetary tendencies and the chilly warfare; the long term position of IBM as a participant and as a goal for upstart marketers; the expansion of software program from a hidden point to a tremendous personality within the tale of computing; and the ordinary factor of where of data and computing in a democratic society. the focal point is at the usa (though Europe and Japan input the tale at the most important points), on computing according to se instead of on functions resembling synthetic intelligence, and on platforms that have been bought commercially and put in in amounts.
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Additional resources for A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition)
After the public unveiling, a flood of interested parties was petitioning to use it. 42 The Advent of Commercial Computing, 1945–1956 25 What was less well known was that the Moore School team had carefully evaluated the architecture of the follow-on computer, the EDVAC, in light of the problems it might be expected to solve. Von Neumann found that although it was initially intended for evaluating mathematical expressions, the EDVAC’s stored-program design made it ‘‘very nearly an ‘all-purpose machine’ ’’ and that it was better than punched card equipment for sorting data.
It was a large and expensive system, not a collection of different devices. The biggest difference was its internal design, not visible to the casual observer. The UNIVAC was a ‘‘stored program’’ computer, one of the first. More than anything else, that made it different from the machines it was designed to replace. The origins of the notion of storing a computer’s programs internally are clouded in war-time secrecy. S. Army, which was engaged in a ground war in Europe and North Africa. It arose because the ENIAC’s creators recognized that while the ENIAC was probably going to work, it was going to be a difficult machine to operate.
Around twenty were built. As with the IBM 701, most went to military agencies or aerospace companies. In 1954 the company delivered an 1103 to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) that employed magnetic core in place of the Williams Tube memory. This was perhaps the first use of core in a commercial machine. The 1103 used binary arithmetic, a 36-bit word length, and operated on all the bits of a word at a time. 84 38 Chapter 1 Following NACA’s advice, ERA modified the machine’s instruction set to include an ‘‘interrupt’’ facility—another first in computer design.
A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition) by Paul E. Ceruzzi