By Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum
This groundbreaking undergraduate textbook on glossy usual English grammar is the 1st to be in keeping with the innovative advances of the authors' prior paintings, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). The textual content is meant for college students in faculties or universities who've very little prior history in grammar, and presupposes no linguistics. It includes workouts, and should offer a foundation for introductions to grammar and classes at the constitution of English, not just in linguistics departments but additionally in English language and literature departments and colleges of schooling.
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New Zealand English is without doubt one of the youngest local speaker types of English, and is the single number of English the place there's recorded proof of its whole background. It stocks a few gains with different Southern Hemisphere types of English similar to Australian English and South African English, yet is usually sincerely particular from those.
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Extra resources for A Student's Introduction to English Grammar
These have the same meaning; they describe the same situation and if used in the same context it would be impossible for one to be true while the other was false. The terms active and passive reflect the fact that in clauses describing an action the subject of the active version (in [a] the dog) denotes the active participant, the performer of the action, while the subject of the passive version (in [b] l) denotes the passive participant, the undergoer of the action. Syntactically the passive version is clearly more complex than the active by virtue of containing extra elements: the auxiliary verb was and the preposition by.
It's undoubtedly a noun, but it doesn't have a plural form the way nouns generally do. We use the term prototypical for the central or core members of a category that do have the full set of distinctive properties. Cat and dog are examples of prototypical nouns, but equipment is a non prototypical noun. Go, know, and tell (and thousands of others) are prototypical verbs, but must is non-prototypical, because (for example) it has no preterite form (*1 musted work late yesterday is ungrammatical), and it can't occur after to (compare 1 don 't want to gQ with *1 don 't want to must work late).
3 A few verbs belong to both auxiliary and lexical verb classes, exhibiting auxiliary behaviour under certain circumstances and lexical verb behaviour else where. The main ones are do, have, need and dare. g. in She did her best, etc. - do is a lexical verb. This is evident from the fact that to form the interrogative or negative in such cases we use dummy do, just as with other lexical verbs:  WITHOUT DUMMY do a. * Does she her best? WITH DUMMY do b. Does she do her best? (b) Have Have is always an auxiliary when it marks perfect tense (where it normally occurs with a following past participle).
A Student's Introduction to English Grammar by Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum