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Later it will be necessary to consider other voltage-gated channels. , but they also provided insights into how sodium and potassium might cross the membrane. They suggested a model in which sodium and potassium channels in the membrane were controlled by "gates" whose opening and closing were voltage dependent. The sodium channel was suggested to have two gates: one (m-gate) closed at rest and opened by depolarization, which is responsible for activation, and the other (h-gate) open at rest and closed by depolarization, which is responsible for sodium CLOSED AT REST inactivation.

Voltage clamp technique in a squid giant axon. One longitudinal electrode is used to measure membrane potential (Vm). The other electrode is used to pass current across the membrane. (Modified from Kuffler et al. ) L--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Continued 33 The Action Potential and Voltage-Gated Channels Continued values and held at those values during ionic current flow (voltage clamp). The technique is shown diagrammatically in Fig. A. fine metal electrodes are placed inside a squid giant axon, parallel to the long axis of the axon.

Passive Electrical Properties of the Cell Membrane The passive (cable) properties of the cell membrane have been considered earlier (Chap. e. for cells in- capable of generating action potentials. As described in Chapter 3, electrically excitable cells differ in the presence of voltage-gated channels in their membrane and depolarization leads to opening of the sodium (or calcium) channels followed by the all-or-nothing action potential. Propagation of the nerve impulse depends on the passive electrical properties of the axonal membrane.

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Antennae by J. Aharoni


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